Thermal Management of 3D Stack Architectures
3D Stacked Architectures:
- Reduces interconnect delay and power consumption
- Reduces footprint area and increases yield
- Enables integration of layers with different technologies in the same circuit
- Stacking layers vertically increases power density
- High power density exacerbates temperature-related reliability, performance and design challenges
- Dynamic thermal management becomes more complicated: Heterogeneous cooling efficiencies of different layers
- Cost and reliability of through-silicon-vias that connect layers are limiting factors
We first investigate how the existing policies for dynamic thermal management
handle the thermal hot spots and temperature gradients in 3D systems. We then propose
a low overhead policy for temperature-aware job allocation in 3D architectures.
The new policy, Adapt-3D takes the thermal history of the processing cores and the 3D system characteristics
into account to balance the temperature and reduce the frequency of hot spots. We evaluate
the management policies on various 2- and 4-tier 3D systems, whose design is based on a 3D-extension of
Sun's UltraSPARC T1 processor.
In the figure above, we show the floorplans we assumed in our simulations. The bottom figure
compares the percentage of hot spot occurences and performance for various policies.
Combining DVFS with our policy, Adapt-3D
achieves up to 40% reduction in hot spots in comparison to applying only DVFS for the 4-tier systems.
Also, performance overhead of Adapt-3D is significantly less than the overhead of policies that
are able to achieve similar thermal behavior.
Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Jose Ayala, David Atienza and Yusuf Leblebici. Dynamic Thermal Management in 3D
Multicore Architectures. In Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), 2009.
Ayse K. Coskun, Andrew B. Kahng, Tajana Simunic Rosing. Temperature- and Cost-Aware Design of 3D Multiprocessor Architectures. In Proceedings of Conference on Digital System Design (DSD), 2009.
Ayse K. Coskun, Jose ́ L. Ayala, David Atienza, Tajana Simunic Rosing. Modeling and Dynamic Management of 3D Multicore Systems with Liquid Cooling. In Proceedings of International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and System-on-Chip (SoC), 2009.
Ayse K. Coskun, David Atienza, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Thomas Brunschwiler, Bruno Michel. Energy-Efficient Variable-Flow Liquid Cooling in 3D Stacked Architectures. In Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), 2010.
Mohamed M. Sabry, Ayse K. Coskun, David Atienza, Tajana Sˇimunic ́ Rosing, Thomas Brunschwiler. Energy-Efficient Multiobjective Thermal Control for Liquid-Cooled 3-D Stacked Architectures. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Vol. 30, No. 12, December 2011.
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